Table of Contents
Rhinoplasty nose surgery in New York City has evolved over the years from a “cookie-cutter, one-type-fits-all” approach to now individualizing the surgery to provide a natural result while also maintaining or improving breathing for most patients. This may mean removing a bump on the nose or refining the tip shape in some patients. Rhinoplasty patients come with a variety of nose shapes and goals, such as having a “flat and wide” nose that may need narrowing or even raising of the profile of the nose.
What is Rhinoplasty?
Rhinoplasty, also referred to as a nose job, is the name for the surgical procedure that can improve both the aesthetics of the nose as well as its function. Aesthetically it can work to reduce a dorsal bump, adjust the shape of your nose, narrow the nasal bridge, refine the tip, and straighten the nose. It can also improve breathing by treating middle vault collapse, deviated septum, and external nasal valve collapse.
Who is a Good Candidate for Rhinoplasty?
A good candidate is someone who desires aesthetic improvement of their nose and/or has difficulties breathing due to a condition such as deviated septum. As a cosmetic surgery, eligible candidates for rhinoplasty should be in good overall health, have no active infections or recent surgery, and have reasonable expectations for the outcome of their unique surgical plan. In most cases, nearly any man or woman who wants to change the shape of their nose or fix their breathing problems can be a good candidate for rhinoplasty in New York City.
What Should I Expect During a Consultation for Rhinoplasty?
During the consultation, you will spend a lot of time with facial plastic surgeon Dr. Steven Wallach reviewing your surgical goals. An exam will then be performed and a surgical plan will be discussed with you at length. See what questions the American Society of Plastic Surgery recommends asking during a consultation here.
What Are the Steps of A Rhinoplasty Procedure?
A nose job is either performed under sedation or general anesthesia. An open or closed rhinoplasty approach is used to gain access to the structures needed to correct the nasal appearance. Internal cartilage may be trimmed, sutured, or folded for the desired effect. The nasal bone and cartilage might require shaving or infracturing. Cartilage grafts may be required as well. The incisions are then closed and a nasal splint is applied. Sometimes nasal packing is used to eliminate drainage and seal the tissues together.
Some patients’ surgeries are more involved than others, and if there are breathing issues this adds to the surgical time. More difficult rhinoplasties requiring extensive septal work or secondary revision rhinoplasty will often take longer.
What Should I Expect During My Rhinoplasty Nose Surgery Recovery?
During rhinoplasty recovery, you will have a nasal splint and may have nasal packing inside your nose. The packing is often removed within one or two days, and the nasal splint often is removed within one week. If there are external sutures, these are often removed within one week as well. You will likely have bruising and swelling throughout the nose and face. Most bruising will go away within 1-2 weeks. A majority of swelling will go down in 6-8 weeks but the nose may still stay slightly swollen for a year or longer.
What Results Should I Expect After Nose Surgery?
You should see an improvement in the overall shape of the nose and if you had correction of breathing issues, hopefully these would improve as well.
- Alar Base Reduction
- Airway Obstruction or Breathing Difficulties
- Ethnic Rhinoplasty
- Graft Options
- Open vs. Closed Approach
- Suturing Techniques
- Tip Refinement
Alar Base Reduction
Alar base reduction surgery is often requested in patients that have a wide nasal base and complain of flaring nostrils. A general guideline to evaluating the nostrils and the nasal base is to compare their relationship to a line drawn down from the inner portion of each eye.
There are several different types of alar base reduction procedures that excise various portions of the alar rim to reduce flare of the nostril and/or the nasal width, and they are chosen based upon the given anatomy and patient goals. These procedures can be done at the same time as the rhinoplasty, but also can be done under local anesthesia at a later time.
“As an expert in the field of plastic surgery, one of the most rewarding aspects of my career has been listening to my patients stories about how having plastic surgery has changed their lives.”
Airway Obstruction or Breathing Difficulties
Many, but not all causes of airway obstruction or breathing difficulties can be treated surgically. The most common causes of airway obstruction include:
- Septal deviation
- Internal valve collapse
- External valve collapse
- Enlarged turbinates
- Nasal polyps
However, there are also other causes of airway obstruction, and these are not always easy to correct. This includes allergic rhinitis, chronic sinusitis, infectious disorders like the flu, and emotional and stress-induced causes. The conditions listed below can be treated by Dr. Wallach during standard rhinoplasty surgery for his New York City patients. Treatment of these conditions, while often improving airway flow, does not always succeed because of the other potential causes described above.
External Valve Collapse
This refers to the nostril valve or the external and internal structures around the nasal rim, including the columella, the lower lateral cartilage (LLC), and the nasal floor. This valve collapses upon inhalation and is usually due to weak LLC either genetically, from trauma, or from previous rhinoplasty surgery. Usually, providing better support to the LLC will improve this condition. This can be accomplished with cartilage grafts sutured to the LLC or columella.
Internal Valve Collapse
The internal nasal valve is made up of the area in the middle third of the nose, consisting mainly of the upper lateral cartilage (ULC), the nasal sidewall, the septum, and the inferior turbinate. Collapse can be seen in the middle third of the nose with deep breathing. Treatment of the collapse can be accomplished by placing a cartilage graft, commonly known as a spreader graft, between the septum and ULC. An alternative is to fold in a portion of the ULC as a graft to increase the angle between the ULC and septum.
When the septum forms a curve instead of a straight line, it can cause airway obstruction. Treatment of the septal deviation can be done using suture techniques, scoring of the cartilage, reinforcement of the cartilage with grafts, and/or removal of a portion of the deviated cartilage as in a submucous resection (SMR). Commonly, an SMR procedure will provide cartilage graft material for use in other areas such as for spreader grafts, batten grafts to straighten the septum, alar cartilage grafts for support of the nasal rim, and as tip grafts, to name a few.
The turbinates are a series of structures that are outpouchings within the nose that humidify the inhaled air. The ones that often give the most trouble are the inferior turbinates. The turbinates are made of bone and overlying mucosa. One or both of these structures may be enlarged and cause airway obstruction. Treatment consists of removing the enlarged component. Sometimes, segments of the inferior turbinate bone and mucosa are resected during rhinoplasty to improve airflow. Out-fracturing the turbinate is occasionally performed. Treatment is dependent upon the exact pathology.
Dr. Wallach does not like this phrase because it is often used to describe select ethnic groups that undergo rhinoplasty. Dr. Wallach practices in New York City and his patients are from all different ethnicities and commonly of mixed ethnicities. He feels that every patient is ethnically unique that in reality, everyone has their own version of an “ethnic rhinoplasty” in some shape or form. The goal for his patients is to maintain their ethnic identity and yet give them a natural result.
For some rhinoplasties, cartilage grafting may be necessary to achieve the best results. Grafting is used to achieve certain results for the tip, for nasal deviations, for breathing difficulties, for dorsal onlay grafting, or for nasal support, to name a few scenarios. Grafts can be obtained from a variety of sources both autologous (your own tissue) and non-autologous (synthetic).
Autologous Graft Choices
Since these are harvested directly from the patient, they tend to have better take than non-autologous grafts, and in general are better to use. There is a lower risk of infection and extrusion.
Ear cartilage is a popular choice to provide grafting material. It can be harvested from an incision behind the ear, and it is often harvested from the conchal bowl leaving little to no ear deformity. It is good for tip grafting and sometimes as a spreader graft. However, it does not have the same structural support as a septal or rib cartilage graft.
Rib cartilage is harvested from the chest wall. A small incision on the chest is used to obtain the graft, and in women it is often harvested through a small incision under the breast fold. This usually provides the largest amount of graft material. It is commonly used when a significantly large dorsal augmentation is required for flat noses particularly in African American, Asian, Hispanic, and Latin American noses. It can be used for most other grafting requirements as well. The main drawback is the scar and the discomfort that can develop from the procedure.
Septal cartilage is often the first choice of graft material because the septum is very commonly exposed during the rhinoplasty, and often treated, as well, for deviations during rhinoplasty. It is an excellent source of cartilage and can be molded for almost any use. There are no additional external incisions to harvest the graft.
Temporalis fascia is found in the lateral forehead region within the hairline. Fascia is the soft, white connective tissue layer that covers muscle tissue in many different areas of the body. The incision used to harvest this particular fascia is within the hairline. It is often used for camouflage purposes when the overlying skin is very thin, so that underlying structures are not as noticeable. It is also for dorsal onlay procedures when diced cartilage is used for nasal augmentation.
Non-Autologous Graft Choices
Are either synthetic or derived from human tissue. They are used frequently but the better choice is autologous cartilage grafts.
Acellular Dermal Matrix (ADM)
ADMs are derived from dermis or skin elements that are treated to remove all antigenic material. They are from either human or porcine tissue. They are used in a similar fashion to fascia. They are good for camouflage purposes to cover the framework structures under a thin skin envelope.
Irradiated Homograft Costal Cartilage (IHCC)
This is rib cartilage that is harvested from a human cadaver and treated so that all antigenicity and any microorganisms are removed. This is used as a cartilage graft like those in the autologous cartilage graft descriptions. It is an excellent product that eliminates the harvest of the patient’s own rib cartilage, thus avoiding the incision and discomfort associated with the rib harvest. It is commonly used when multiple cartilage grafts are needed, when there are not enough donor site grafts available from the septum or ear, or when the patient does not want their own rib to be harvested. There have been several studies in the medical literature showing the long-term use and efficacy of this product.
Gore-Tex, Porex, and silicone are all types of synthetic grafts that are available for nasal augmentation. Since they are synthetic and they do not become incorporated into the adjoining tissue, they have a higher incidence of infection and extrusion. Dr. Wallach does not usually use these products for nasal grafting and prefers autologous tissue grafts when available.
Open vs. Closed Approach
Traditionally, the closed approach was the most common surgical incision technique used to gain access to the underlying nasal framework during surgery. This usually employed various internal incisions and could include incisions between the upper and lower lateral cartilages, at the inferior border of the lower lateral cartilages, or within the border of the lower lateral cartilages. Commonly, this was combined with a transfixion incision (along the lower border of the septum).
This closed approach can be used in many instances, and some surgeons exclusively use closed rhinoplasty. However, many surgeons have moved away from this approach and instead opt for an open approach more frequently.
The open approach also uses some or all of these previously described incisions, but includes a small incision on the skin of the columella. The columella is the area between the two nostrils. The incision added is only about 0.5 -1 cm in length but it gives so much more exposure to the surgeon.
Since the columella incision is in the shadow of the nose, when looking at someone straight on, the columella incision is often well hidden. Most surgeons feel that with this better exposure, more precise and accurate work can be done. Dr. Wallach prefers this technique for most of his New York rhinoplasty patients. Learn more about Open vs Closed Rhinoplasty.
Rhinoplasty surgeons perform osteotomies, or precise bony cuts, so that the nasal bones can be moved. If a dorsal nasal hump is shaved down to reduce it, commonly the dorsum becomes flat and osteotomies are required to move the bones inward and restore the natural nasal shape. This can be done with several different types of bone cuts: low-to high, low-to-low, medial oblique, or even double-level cuts. In many circumstances, the nasal pyramid is narrowed after the osteotomies. In some cases, especially after trauma, the bones sometimes need to be out-fractured to restore nasal width.
Rhinoplasty surgery has evolved over the years. As described above, as our knowledge of the nose has improved and results have been scrutinized, techniques have improved from a “cookie-cutter” approach to a more individualized, meticulously carried out procedure to provide aesthetic improvement, but yet maintain nasal function.
The days of removing structural support to make the cute “button nose” and leave the patient unable to breathe properly have disappeared. With this in mind, conservation of inherent structural support is keenly observed. As such, suturing techniques (internal stitches) have evolved to modify the structural shape, such as the tip. In addition, suturing techniques and careful dissection of vital internal structures have evolved to help minimize scarring and contracture in an attempt to maintain good vital function.
Many patients desire improvement in the nasal tip. Sometimes the tips are “boxy,” bulbous, rounded, clefted, have a parenthesis shape, or are just unsatisfying. These deformities can be related to the underlying anatomical structures that create the tip.
The lower lateral nasal cartilages contribute to the tip appearance, and often have to be modified with partial excision as well as with suturing techniques to create the desired shape. Sometimes cartilage grafts are used to improve tip projection as well, and are secured to the cartilage in the columella region.
The overlying skin envelope also contributes to the overall shape. In patients with very thick, oily skin, these underlying structures may not be as well defined as in someone with very thin skin. The thicker skin and soft tissue envelope tend to blunt the underlying structures and hide them, therefore, thinning the subcutaneous tissue a bit may improve the tip definition.
How much does rhinoplasty cost?
The fee will vary but can range from $7,500-$25,000. These costs may include things like general anesthesia, tests, surgical facility costs, and more.
Rhinoplasty with a Board Certified Plastic Surgeon
If you would like more information about board-certified plastic Surgeon Dr. Wallach and his success with New York City Rhinoplasty procedures, we hope that you will not hesitate to contact our Manhattan office at (212) 257-3263 or using our contact form to request additional details.